Angle - the measurement of the space between two straight lines that extend from a common point. There are several types: acute, obtuse, right, straight, reflex, opposite, supplementary, complimentary, alternate.
Acute Angle - an angle measuring between 0 and 90 degrees
Algebraic Equations - there are at least 3 possible methods to solve simple algebraic equations. Give all 3 a try!
First Way Look at the algebraic question and mentally fill in the blank;
(2) Secondary Way - whatever you do to one side of the equals, you have to do exactly the same on the other side
n + 7 = 29
n + 7 - 7 = 29 - 7
n = 22
(3) Opposite Way - the goal is to make the "n" lonely, so the + 7 has to be removed, but if you take it away from one side, then you have to do the opposite to the other side
n + 7 = 29
n = 29 - 7
n = 22
Angle Relationships: (geometry)
- Complimentary Angles - 2 angles that add up to 90 degrees
- Supplementary Angles - 2 angles that add up to 180 degrees
- Opposite Angles - where there are 2 lines that intersect, the opposite angles are equal
- Perpendicular Lines - lines that intersect to form a right angle (90 degrees)
- Parallel Lines - two lines that are on the same plane but do NOT intersect
- Transversal Line - a line or line segment that crosses or intersects two other lines. If the 2 other lines are parallel, then the alternate angles are equal, the corresponding angles are equal and the co-interior angles add to 180 degrees
Area of a regular shaped Prism - formula: A = L x W
Area of a Triangle -another special formula A = bh
Average -a set of numbers from the sum of specified numbers divided by the number of numbers
Bar Graph - compares similar items by using bars of different heights on a graph
PEDMAS - Order of Operations for calculations in this order: Parenthsies, Exponents, Division, Multiplication, Addition, Subtraction
Bisect - to divide into two equal parts
Broken-Line Graph - uses a series of line segments to show how something changes with time.
Capacity: the amount a container can hold when filled
Chord: a line segment with its endpoints on the circle
Circumference: the "perimeter" of a circle, the distance around the circle - C = pd where p = 3.14
Composite Numbers - a number that has more than 2 factors. Example: the factors of 8 are 1, 2, 4, 8, therefore it is NOT a prime number.
Congruent - in geometry, figures and shapes are equal being identical in size and shape
Comparing Symbols - < less than,≤ less than or equal to, > greater than, ≥ greater than or equal to, = equal to, ≠ not equal to
Compass - used in geometry
Denominator - the bottom number in a fraction
Diameter - (d) a line that goes through the whole circle including the centre
Difference - subtract
Dividend - the number that is to be divided by another
Divisor - the number by which the dividend is to be divided
Expanded Form or Expanded Notation- expanding or extending numerals into an expression. Example:
4629.35 = (4x1000) + (6x100) + (2x10) + (9x1) + (3x0.1) + (5x0.01)
Estimate - to make a rough calculation which may involve approximating. This helps to understand to understand big complex numbers 192 x 9 = 200 x 10 = 2000
Exponents - the numerical symbol used to indicate the raising of a base number to a power.
Example: 4©ø = 4x4x4 = 64
Expression - an algebra question or problem
Equation - an algebra statement of equality between two expressions
Evaluate - solve the problem
Edge - a line forming the intersection of two faces of a polyhedron
Factors - all of the numbers which divide exactly into a number. Example: the factors of 12 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12
Factor Tree: a diagram that shows the prime factors of a composite number
Fractions - part of whole numbers, also related to decimals
¨ý (5 is numerator/8 is denominator)
There are many important rules when working with Fractions:
1. When sorting, adding or subtracting fractions, use common denominators;
2. When multiplying, multiply the numerator separately, then the denominators
3/4 x 1/3 = 3/12
3. When dividing, multiply the reciprocal:
3/5 divide 2/3 = 3/5 x 3/2 = 9/10
4. Always reduce fractions at the end of your answer: 3/4 x 1/3 = 3/12 = 1/4
5. Conversion into decimals is easy!
1/6 is a division statement - 1 divided by 6
6. Equivalent fractions are 2 fractions that represent the same rational number:
2/4 = 4/8 = 8/16 = 1/2
7. Improper fractions - when the numerator is larger than the denominator 7/5
8. Mixed fractions - improper fractions is a mixed number: 7/5 = 1 2/5
Face - flat surface of a polyhedron
Frequence - the number of times an event has occurred
Geometry - in three-dimensional (3D) geometry, the objects have edges and faces
Greatest Common Factor (GCF) - the largest factor that 2 or more numbers have in common
Hypotenuse - in a right triangle, the hypotenuse is the line opposite the right angle.
Heptagon - A polygon with 7 sides
Histogram - a bar graph in which the labes for the bares are in numericical intervals.
Intersecting Lines - lines that intersect
Inequalities - symbols used to compare numbers - < less than, ¡Â less than or equal to, > greater than, ¡Ã greater than or equal to, = equal to, ¡Á not equal to
Integers - positive and negative counting numbers
Integer Line - a line with a middle of 0 and positive numbers on the right side and negative numbers on the left
Integer Rules - multiplying (also same for dividing) -
+ x + = +
- x - = +
+ x - = -
- x - = -
Isosceles Triangle - a triangle with 2 equal sides
Line Segment - in geometry, part of a line, written as AB
Least common denominator (LCD) - The least common multiple of the donominators in two or more fractions
Least Common Multiple (LCM) - The smallest number other than zero this is a common multiple of two or more numbers.
Leg (Of a Right triangle) - Either of the two sides that form the right anglel in a right triangle
Line plot - a graph showing the frequency of data on a number line.
Mean - same as average
Median - the middle number in a set of numbers arranged in order
Mode - the number that occurs most often in a set of numbers
Net - a 2D figure that can be folded to make a polyhedron.
Numerals - symbols used to denote numbers. Example: 1, 2, 3, ......
Numerator - the top number of a fraction
Order of Operations - specific rules that must be followed when solving a math problem (such as PEDMAS)
Obtuse Angle - an angle greater than 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees
Of - in math terms, it means "to multiply"
Ordered Pairs - written as (1,2)
Parallel Lines - lines that never intersect
Plane - a flat surface that extends infinitely in all directions
Perimeter - the distance around an object measured along a boundary, add up the distances of all of the sides.
Percent - a number calculated out of 100. It is related to fractions and decimals. A fraction can be changed into a percent using division (4/5 = 4 divided by 5 = 0.80 x 100 = 80%). A decimal can be changed into a percent using multiplication (0.33 x 100 - 33 %)
Perpendicular Lines - intersect at right angles
Pi - a Greek symbol representing the number for 3.14
Pictograph - a graph using pictures
Place Value: position of a number determines its value (see chart)
Point - a geometric location on a line or in space
Polyhedron - a solid shape, each of whose face is a polygon
Polygon - in geometry, a plane (2D) shape having 3 or more sides. Regular polygons have all equal sides and all equal angles.
Powers of Ten Multiply: usually add zeroes but sometimes move the decimal to the left.
32 x 1000 = 32000, 32 x 0.001 = 0.032
Divide: usually move the decimal to the left but sometimes add zeroes (which might also mean move the decimal to the right).
32 ./. 1000 = 0.032, 32 ./. 0.01 = 3200
Prime Number - a number that has only 2 factors, 1 and the number itself. Examples: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 ....
Prism - a polyhedron having the same cross section through its length
Product - the answer from a multiplication question
Pyramid - a polyhedron with a polygon for its base (square, triangle) and the other faces are triangles with a common vertex
Pythagorean Theorum - in a right-angled triangle, the area of the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares on the remaining sides. Formula: Hypotenuse(squared) = [one side(squared)] x [other side (squared)]
Quotient - the answer from division questions
Quadrants - the four regions of a coordiante plane that are separated by the axes.
Radius - the line from the centre to the boundary of the circle
Range - the difference between the greates and the lease numbers in a set of data
Rate - a comparison of two numbers, similar to ratio, but with different units of measurement
Ratio - a comparison of two numbers. It is used to compare two quantities measured in similar units by comparing
Ray - a straight line extending from a point (the point is the beginning of the ray)
Reflex Angle - an angle that measures more than 180 degrees and less than 360 degrees
Repeating Decimal - a decimal that has a repeating sequence of numbers after the decimal point
0.333..... or 0.3
Right Angle - equals 90 degrees
Rounding - rules to help understand complicated numbers
5 and over - round up
4 and under - round down
HINT: look at the number beside it
Sample - instead of doing a large survey, a small survey or sample can be conducted. 100 people might indicate 100,000 people
Scientific Notation - a number that is written using scientific notation is as follows:
632 = 6.32 x 10©÷
5,324 = 5.324 x 10©ø
Shell - a 3-dimensional object whose interior is empty
Skeleton - a representation of the edges of a 3D object
Square Root - one of two equal factors of a number
Solid - a 3D object whose interior is completely filled
Standard Form - the regular way in which numbers are usually written.
Straight Angle - an angle that measures 180 degrees
Stem and Leaf Plot - a chart that organizes data in increasing order
Sum - add
Symmetry - a figure has line symmetry if a line can separate the figure into two congruent parts.
Triangle - triangles are classified in two possible ways: by angle or sides
Tally Chart - a survey
Table of Values - a chart to organize variables for graphing
Transformtiation - the moving of a figure by a translation (slide), rotation - (turn) or reflection (flip)
Unit Rate - a comparison of two numbers in which the 2nd number is usually 1.
Example: Cans of soup are $0.74 / each
5 cans = $3.70
But a case of soup = 24 cans x $0.74/each = $17.76
(Case is 24 / dozen is 12)
km/h = the number of kms in 1 hour
Vertex / Vertices - a point where two or more geometric lines meet
Volume - the measure of the amount of space that a solid figure occupies. The volume of a prism measures everything INSIDE the figure.
For a regular shaped prism: V = L x W x H
For a triangle: V = Area of Base x H
Whole number - any of the numbers 0, 1,2 ,3,... and so on