PSSA Dictionary!
Angle  the measurement of the space between two straight lines that extend from a common point. There are several types: acute, obtuse, right, straight, reflex, opposite, supplementary, complimentary, alternate.
Acute Angle  an angle measuring between 0 and 90 degrees
Algebraic Equations  there are at least 3 possible methods to solve simple algebraic equations. Give all 3 a try!
First Way Look at the algebraic question and mentally fill in the blank;
(2) Secondary Way  whatever you do to one side of the equals, you have to do exactly the same on the other side
n + 7 = 29
n + 7  7 = 29  7
n = 22
(3) Opposite Way  the goal is to make the "n" lonely, so the + 7 has to be removed, but if you take it away from one side, then you have to do the opposite to the other side
n + 7 = 29
n = 29  7
n = 22
Angle Relationships: (geometry)
 Complimentary Angles  2 angles that add up to 90 degrees
 Supplementary Angles  2 angles that add up to 180 degrees
 Opposite Angles  where there are 2 lines that intersect, the opposite angles are equal
 Perpendicular Lines  lines that intersect to form a right angle (90 degrees)
 Parallel Lines  two lines that are on the same plane but do NOT intersect
 Transversal Line  a line or line segment that crosses or intersects two other lines. If the 2 other lines are parallel, then the alternate angles are equal, the corresponding angles are equal and the cointerior angles add to 180 degrees
^{Area of a regular shaped Prism  formula: A = L x W}
^{Area of a Triangle another special formula A = bh}
Average a set of numbers from the sum of specified numbers divided by the number of numbers
Bar Graph  compares similar items by using bars of different heights on a graph
PEDMAS  Order of Operations for calculations in this order: Parenthsies, Exponents, Division, Multiplication, Addition, Subtraction
Bisect  to divide into two equal parts
BrokenLine Graph  uses a series of line segments to show how something changes with time.
Capacity: the amount a container can hold when filled
Chord: a line segment with its endpoints on the circle
Circumference: the "perimeter" of a circle, the distance around the circle  C = pd where p = 3.14
Composite Numbers  a number that has more than 2 factors. Example: the factors of 8 are 1, 2, 4, 8, therefore it is NOT a prime number.
Congruent  in geometry, figures and shapes are equal being identical in size and shape
Comparing Symbols  < less than,≤ less than or equal to, > greater than, ≥ greater than or equal to, = equal to, ≠ not equal to
Compass  used in geometry
Denominator  the bottom number in a fraction
Diameter  (d) a line that goes through the whole circle including the centre
^{Difference  subtract}
^{D}^{ividend  the number that is to be divided by another }
Divisor  the number by which the dividend is to be divided
Expanded Form or Expanded Notation expanding or extending numerals into an expression. Example:
4629.35 = (4x1000) + (6x100) + (2x10) + (9x1) + (3x0.1) + (5x0.01)
Estimate  to make a rough calculation which may involve approximating. This helps to understand to understand big complex numbers 192 x 9 = 200 x 10 = 2000
Exponents  the numerical symbol used to indicate the raising of a base number to a power.
Example: 4©ø = 4x4x4 = 64
Expression  an algebra question or problem
Equation  an algebra statement of equality between two expressions
Evaluate  solve the problem
Edge  a line forming the intersection of two faces of a polyhedron
Factors  all of the numbers which divide exactly into a number. Example: the factors of 12 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12
Factor Tree: a diagram that shows the prime factors of a composite number
Fractions  part of whole numbers, also related to decimals
¨ý (5 is numerator/8 is denominator)
There are many important rules when working with Fractions:
1. When sorting, adding or subtracting fractions, use common denominators;
2. When multiplying, multiply the numerator separately, then the denominators
3/4 x 1/3 = 3/12
3. When dividing, multiply the reciprocal:
3/5 divide 2/3 = 3/5 x 3/2 = 9/10
4. Always reduce fractions at the end of your answer: 3/4 x 1/3 = 3/12 = 1/4
5. Conversion into decimals is easy!
1/6 is a division statement  1 divided by 6
6. Equivalent fractions are 2 fractions that represent the same rational number:
2/4 = 4/8 = 8/16 = 1/2
7. Improper fractions  when the numerator is larger than the denominator 7/5
8. Mixed fractions  improper fractions is a mixed number: 7/5 = 1 2/5
Face  flat surface of a polyhedron
Frequence  the number of times an event has occurred
Geometry  in threedimensional (3D) geometry, the objects have edges and faces
Greatest Common Factor (GCF)  the largest factor that 2 or more numbers have in common
Hypotenuse  in a right triangle, the hypotenuse is the line opposite the right angle.
Heptagon  A polygon with 7 sides
Histogram  a bar graph in which the labes for the bares are in numericical intervals.
Intersecting Lines  lines that intersect
Inequalities  symbols used to compare numbers  < less than, ¡Â less than or equal to, > greater than, ¡Ã greater than or equal to, = equal to, ¡Á not equal to
Integers  positive and negative counting numbers
Integer Line  a line with a middle of 0 and positive numbers on the right side and negative numbers on the left
Integer Rules  multiplying (also same for dividing) 
+ x + = +
 x  = +
+ x  = 
 x  = 
Isosceles Triangle  a triangle with 2 equal sides
Line Graph:
Line Segment  in geometry, part of a line, written as AB
Least common denominator (LCD)  The least common multiple of the donominators in two or more fractions
Least Common Multiple (LCM)  The smallest number other than zero this is a common multiple of two or more numbers.
Leg (Of a Right triangle)  Either of the two sides that form the right anglel in a right triangle
Line plot  a graph showing the frequency of data on a number line.
Mean  same as average
Median  the middle number in a set of numbers arranged in order
Mode  the number that occurs most often in a set of numbers
Metric Conversions:
Metric Conversions

0.001

0.01

1

1,000

milli

centi


kilo

mm

cm

metre (distance)

km

mg


gram (solids)

kg

mL


Litre (liquids)

kL



Net  a 2D figure that can be folded to make a polyhedron.
Numerals  symbols used to denote numbers. Example: 1, 2, 3, ......
Numerator  the top number of a fraction
Order of Operations  specific rules that must be followed when solving a math problem (such as PEDMAS)
Obtuse Angle  an angle greater than 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees
Of  in math terms, it means "to multiply"
Ordered Pairs  written as (1,2)
Parallel Lines  lines that never intersect
Plane  a flat surface that extends infinitely in all directions
Perimeter  the distance around an object measured along a boundary, add up the distances of all of the sides.
Percent  a number calculated out of 100. It is related to fractions and decimals. A fraction can be changed into a percent using division (4/5 = 4 divided by 5 = 0.80 x 100 = 80%). A decimal can be changed into a percent using multiplication (0.33 x 100  33 %)
Perpendicular Lines  intersect at right angles
Pi  a Greek symbol representing the number for 3.14
Pictograph  a graph using pictures
Place Value: position of a number determines its value (see chart)
Point  a geometric location on a line or in space
Polyhedron  a solid shape, each of whose face is a polygon
Polygon  in geometry, a plane (2D) shape having 3 or more sides. Regular polygons have all equal sides and all equal angles.
Powers of Ten Multiply: usually add zeroes but sometimes move the decimal to the left.
32 x 1000 = 32000, 32 x 0.001 = 0.032
Divide: usually move the decimal to the left but sometimes add zeroes (which might also mean move the decimal to the right).
32 ./. 1000 = 0.032, 32 ./. 0.01 = 3200
.
Prime Number  a number that has only 2 factors, 1 and the number itself. Examples: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 ....
Prism  a polyhedron having the same cross section through its length
Product  the answer from a multiplication question
Pyramid  a polyhedron with a polygon for its base (square, triangle) and the other faces are triangles with a common vertex
Pythagorean Theorum  in a rightangled triangle, the area of the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares on the remaining sides. Formula: Hypotenuse(squared) = [one side(squared)] x [other side (squared)]
Quotient  the answer from division questions
Quadrants  the four regions of a coordiante plane that are separated by the axes.
Radius  the line from the centre to the boundary of the circle
Range  the difference between the greates and the lease numbers in a set of data
Rate  a comparison of two numbers, similar to ratio, but with different units of measurement
Ratio  a comparison of two numbers. It is used to compare two quantities measured in similar units by comparing
Ray  a straight line extending from a point (the point is the beginning of the ray)
Reflex Angle  an angle that measures more than 180 degrees and less than 360 degrees
Repeating Decimal  a decimal that has a repeating sequence of numbers after the decimal point
0.333..... or 0.3
Right Angle  equals 90 degrees
Rounding  rules to help understand complicated numbers
5 and over  round up
4 and under  round down
HINT: look at the number beside it
Sample  instead of doing a large survey, a small survey or sample can be conducted. 100 people might indicate 100,000 people
Scientific Notation  a number that is written using scientific notation is as follows:
632 = 6.32 x 10©÷
5,324 = 5.324 x 10©ø
Shell  a 3dimensional object whose interior is empty
Skeleton  a representation of the edges of a 3D object
Square Root  one of two equal factors of a number
Solid  a 3D object whose interior is completely filled
Standard Form  the regular way in which numbers are usually written.
Straight Angle  an angle that measures 180 degrees
Stem and Leaf Plot  a chart that organizes data in increasing order
Sum  add
Symmetry  a figure has line symmetry if a line can separate the figure into two congruent parts.
Triangle  triangles are classified in two possible ways: by angle or sides
Tally Chart  a survey
Table of Values  a chart to organize variables for graphing
Transformtiation  the moving of a figure by a translation (slide), rotation  (turn) or reflection (flip)
Unit Rate  a comparison of two numbers in which the 2nd number is usually 1.
Example: Cans of soup are $0.74 / each
5 cans = $3.70
But a case of soup = 24 cans x $0.74/each = $17.76
(Case is 24 / dozen is 12)
km/h = the number of kms in 1 hour
Vertex / Vertices  a point where two or more geometric lines meet
Volume  the measure of the amount of space that a solid figure occupies. The volume of a prism measures everything INSIDE the figure.
For a regular shaped prism: V = L x W x H
For a triangle: V = Area of Base x H
Whole number  any of the numbers 0, 1,2 ,3,... and so on
X Coordinate:
Y Coordinate:
